Tuesday, May 31, 2011


Article taken from: http://www.rmeswi.com/

Cigarettes & Radiation…

One theory on lung cancer which brings both air-borne radon and cigarettes to a comparable assessment is the amount of radiation contained in both. Because tobacco is grown in soils fertilized by Phosphorous (radioactive) enriched materials, polonium-210 and lead-210 (radioactive) are resident in the tobacco leaves. When smoked, this radiation is transferred to the smoker’s lungs, and then exhaled to the environment. If contained in a room or car, this radiation filled smoke can be inhaled by non-smokers, causing lung damage.

Two articles on the subject are…

Radioactivity in Cigarette Smoke
Winters-TH, Franza-JR
New England Journal of Medicine, 1982; 306(6): 364-365

To the Editor: During the 17 years since the Surgeon General's first report on smoking, intense research activity has been focused on the carcinogenic potential of the tar component of cigarette smoke. Only one definite chemical carcinogen -- benzopyrene -- has been found. Conspicuous because of its absence is research into the role of the radioactive component of cigarette smoke.

The alpha emitters polonium-210 and lead-210 are highly concentrated on tobacco trichomes and insoluble particles in cigarette smoke (1). The major source of the polonium is phosphate fertilizer, which is used in growing tobacco. The trichomes of the leaves concentrate the polonium, which persists when tobacco is dried and processed.

Levels of Po-210 were measured in cigarette smoke by Radford and Hunt (2) and in the bronchial epithelium of smokers and nonsmokers by Little et al. (3) After inhalation, ciliary action causes the insoluble radioactive particles to accumulate at the bifurcation of segmental bronchi, a common site of origin of bronchogenic carcinomas.

In a person smoking 1 1/2 packs of cigarettes per day, the radiation dose to the bronchial epithelium in areas of bifurcation is 8000 mrem per year -- the equivalent of the dose to the skin from 300 x-ray films of the chest per year. This figure is comparable to total-body exposure to natural background radiation containing 80 mrem per year in someone living in the Boston area.

It is a common practive to assume that the exposure received from a radiation source is distributed throughout a tissue. In this way, a high level of exposure in a localized region -- e.g. bronchial epithelium -- is averaged out over the entire tissue mass, suggesting a low level of exposure. However, alpha particles have a range of only 40 um in the body. A cell nucleus of 5 to 6 um that is traversed by a single alpha particle receives a dose of 1000 rems. Thus, although the total tissue dose might be considered negligible, cells close to an alpha source receive high doses. The Po-210 alpha activity of cigarette smoke may be a very effective carcinogen if a multiple mutation mechanism is involved.

Radford and Hunt have determined that 75 per cent of the alpha activity of cigarette smoke enters the ambient air and is unabsorbed by the smoker, (2) making it available for deposit in the lungs of others. Little et al. have measured levels of Po-210 in the lungs of nonsmokers that may not be accounted for on the basis of natural exposure to this isotope.

The detrimental effects of tobacco smoke have been considerably underestimated, making it less likely that chemical carcinogens alone are responsible for the observed incidence of tobacco-related carcinoma. Alpha emitters in cigarette smoke result in appreciable radiation exposure to the bronchial epithelium of smokers and probably secondhand smokers. Alpha radiation is a possible etio- logic factor in tobacco-related carcinoma, and it deserves further study.

Thomas H. Winters, M.D.
Joseph R. Di Franza, M.D.
University of Massachusetts Medical Center
Worcester, Ma 01605

How much radiation dose is received by a cigarette smoker?

Interestingly, this subject was initially investigated some 40 years ago by scientists at the School of Public Health at Harvard University. Working with physicians in the neighboring Harvard teaching hospitals, they were able to obtain lungs taken during autopsies of smokers who had died from lung cancer. The School of Public Health scientists carefully analyzed samples from selected areas of these lungs and found that they contained relatively high concentrations of 210Po (polonium-210), a naturally occurring radionuclide that the International Commission on Radiological Protection considers to be one of the most hazardous of all radioactive materials. In fact, it is far more hazardous than 239Pu (plutonium-239). Of particular significance was that the Harvard studies showed that this radionuclide tended to concentrate in "hot spots" at bifurcations of segmental bronchi within the lungs, precisely the areas where lung cancer originates among cigarette smokers.

Armed with this information, studies were conducted to determine the source of the 210Po. Although the initial assumption was that it was taken up by the tobacco plant from the soil, the investigations revealed that it was deposited on the leaves of the plants (which are large and sticky) from the air. Just as the decay of naturally occurring radium in the soil often results in the presence of relatively high concentrations of radon and its radioactive decay products in the air inside buildings, the decay of radium in the soil outdoors results in the presence of radon and its decay products in the surrounding air. Whereas radon is a gas, its radioactive decay products are solids. Enhancing the adherence of these decay products to the tobacco leaves is the fact that they are electrically charged and readily adhere to any surface with which they come into contact. When a smoker lights a cigarette, the 210Po is volatilized and, when he/she inhales, it is deposited in the lungs.

Based on careful assessments of the concentrations of 210Po in the lung tissues, it was estimated that the "hot spots" received an annual dose of about 160 millisievert (about 16,000 millirem), two of the more common units for expressing doses from ionizing radiation. To provide perspective, it is useful to compare this dose to the limit stipulated, for example, by the US Environmental Protection Agency for members of the US public. Making this difficult in this case, however, is that the annual dose limit for members of the public (1 millisievert, or 100 millirem) is expressed in terms of a dose to the whole body, whereas, as noted above, the dose to a smoker is limited to a very small portion of the body.

Nonetheless, in a report published in 1987, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 1987) sought to make such a comparison, the tentative outcome of which suggested that the annual dose to a smoker (when converted into an equivalent dose to the whole body) was more than 10 times the annual dose limit for a member of the public. Having provided this estimate, however, the NCRP went on to state that they would prefer not to make such a comparison. That is to say, the comparison to the annual whole-body dose limit may not be completely valid.

In a similar manner, the scientists at Harvard, while acknowledging that the dose to a smoker was high, were quick to recognize that 210Po was only one of a multitude of carcinogenic compounds in cigarettes. For this reason, they were hesitant to cite 210Po as a primary source of lung cancer among cigarette smokers. Based on these considerations, their conclusion was that "we believe 210Po may be an important factor in the initiation of bronchial carcinoma in humans" (Little et al. 1965).

Dade W. Moeller, CHP, PhD

Little JB, Radford EP Jr, McCombs HL, Hunt VR. Distribution of Polonium210 in pulmonary tissues of cigarette smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 273: 1343-1351; 16 December 1965.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Radiation exposure of the US population from consumer products and miscellaneous sources. Bethesda, MD: NCRP; NCRP Report No. 95; 1987.

Saturday, May 28, 2011



The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) reports for the proposed rare earth processing plant in Gebeng, Pahang, by Lynas is available for public viewing from May 30-June 30.

The International Trade and Industry Ministry said in a statement the reports can be viewed at the Department of Environment library, the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry, the library of the Department of Environment of Pahang, the Kuantan Municipal Council and the Pahang Land and District Office.

Both reports are also available at the Pahang Police headquarters, the National Library of Malaysia, the Police Beat Base at Gebeng Industrial Estate, the Pahang State Library, Balai Penghulu Mukim and all Department of Environment and Atomic Energy Licensing Boards of state offices.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011


Program Latihan Remaja Perodua is a training program organized by Perodua for SPM leavers who would be interested in the Automotive field

It is opened to Malaysian students and is endorsed by Majlis Latihan Vokasional Malaysia and the Ministry of Human Resources.

The Following programs are offered;


a) Mekanik Kenderaan Motor - SKM Tahap 1
b) Penyembur Cat Automobil - SKM Tahap 2

It is a 6 months training program starting from July 4th 2011.

All participants would be paid an allowance of RM350 per month and medical expenses RM200.

Accommodation would be provided in Bukit Sentosa and they would also be given another RM1.90 lunch allowance per day. They will also be provided 3 sets of uniform.

The training would be conducted at Perodua Head Quarters in Serendah, Hulu Selangor.

As mentioned, it is opened to SPM (2010) leavers who have passed their examinations, healthy and must be 18 years old.

If you or any of your friends, relatives are interested, please send in a copy of resume, a photo copy of the applicants identity card, a copy of the 2010 SPM result slip, copies of school leaving certificate and other relevant certificates (all certificates must be endorsed as true copies) and 2 latest passport size photograph and send them to the following address;

Jabatan Komunikasi Korporat
Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Sdn. Bhd.
Sg. Choh, Locked Bag 226,
48009 Rawang, Selangor Darul Ehsan

Please do indicate the program that you are applying on the top left hand corner of the envelope : example Program Latihan Remaja Perodua - Mekanik Kenderaan Motor.

The closing date for the training is 4th June 2011

Only selected candidates would be interviewed

After 6 months of training, Perodua would hire the trainees with a salary of RM750 per month + OT.

PERODUA is investing RM20,000 per student for this training.

Tuesday, May 24, 2011


The expert team selected by the IAEA to undertake the review consists of nine persons.

The team will be lead by Dr Tero Varjoranta from Finland. He is the director of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology at the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy.

External experts are Jan van der Steen (Netherlands), Dr Leo M Lowe (Canada), Dr P M Balagopala Pillai (India), Dr Dennis Wymer (UK), and Ulric Schwela (Finland).

Internal (IAEA) experts comprise Dr Magnus Vesterlind (Sweden), Dr Horst Monken Fernandes (Brazil) and Hanna Kajander (Finland), while Hiroko Raticliffe will be the administrative assistant.

All members of the panel are recognised experts in their respective disciplines and have specialist knowledge on issues relating to radiation protection, safety assessment, waste management, transportat, and decommissioning and remedial actions.

The IAEA is an independent organisation within the United Nations' framework. It works with its 151-member states and 71 inter-governmental and non-governmental organisation partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies.

A key role of the IAEA is to develop and establish radiation and nuclear safety standards for worldwide adoption.

It is also the accepted international authority on best work practices on issues relating to nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive waste materials, and the safety of nuclear fuel facilities.

A significant portion of the IAEA's work involves providing independent and objective advice on how to achieve high levels of safety and security.

When the world's first nuclear plant accident occurred at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, United States in 1979, it was an IAEA expert group that was called in to review safety aspects and advise on emergency planning and response.

In 1986, when the world's worst nuclear accident took place in Chernobyl, Ukraine, the IAEA played a similar role.

More recently, when a giant tsunami hit the Fukushima power plant in Japan, the authorities there also turned to the IAEA for help.

Perhaps the most high-profile acknowledgement of IAEA's work came in the form of the Nobel Peace Prize of 2005, which was awarded to the agency and its former director-general Mohamed ElBaradei “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”.

The IAEA's mission today continues to focus on three areas:

> Safety and security;

> Science and technology;

> Safeguards and verification.

It promotes the safe and secure use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and is not in the business of promoting nuclear or radiation technologies per se.

By any measure, the IAEA is clearly the most competent technical organisation to undertake this review of the Lynas project.

At Gebeng, the panel of experts will determine whether Lynas has complied with relevant international safety standards and good practices.

It will provide its expert opinion on safety issues, in particular, radiation safety.

The panel comprises four professionals from IAEA and five from IAEA member countries.

All are recognised experts in their respective disciplines, and have specialist knowledge of issues relating to radiation protection, safety assessment, waste management, transportation, and decommissioning and remedial actions. Their individual background details have already been made public.

The panel will visit Malaysia from May 29 to June 3, and will receive submissions from the public. This is a good opportunity for critics of the project to air their views.

Information credits to BERNAMA Malaysia.

Sunday, May 22, 2011


The following are questions that I would be raising in the Parliament. The next Parliament sitting would be starting on June 13th 2011. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all my constituents, friends and critics for suggesting some of the questions and also by providing inputs.

The number of questions this time around were overwhelming and I assure you that, I will be raising some of the questions during the question and answer sessions in the parliament, should I get the opportunity.


Soalan 1:

Minta Menteri Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air menyatakan sama ada akan membiarkan pengguna air Selangor & Lembah Kelang menunggu sahaja dengan penuh kebimbangan krisis bekalan air yang bakal berlaku pada 2014 tanpa sebarang usaha penyelemat, memandangkan setakat ini tiada tanda-tanda kerjasama akan diberikan oleh Kerajaan Negeri Selangor.

Soalan 2;

Minta Perdana Menteri untuk menyatakan sama ada Kerajaan boleh mempertimbangkan untuk memberikan elaun khas kepada ahli-ahli Jawatankuasa Kawasan Rukun Tetangga yang telah banyak mengorbankan masa dan tenaga mereka untuk membantu rakyat tempatan: dan pada masa yang sama menaiktarafkan status KRT ini sebaya dengan JKKKP.

Soalan 3;

Minta Perdana Menteri memberi maklumat bilakah Balai Bomba di Bukit Sentosa, Hulu Selangor akan dibina, memandangkan satu tapak telah pun dikenalpasti dan hanya menunggu projek pembinaan Balai Bomba itu dimulakan.

Soalan 4;

Minta Menteri Kerja Raya menyatakan adakah perancangan dalam RMK10 untuk melebarkan jambatan Batang Kali di Laluan Persekutuan 1 (FT001) yang sempit dan sering menyebabkan berlakunya kesesakan terutama pada waktu puncak dan musim perayaan dan berapakah anggaran kos kerja pelebaran tersebut?

Soalan 5;

Minta Menteri Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan Masyarakat menyatakan adakah perancangan untuk mewujudkan 'Pusat Pemulihan Alkoholik' sama seperti 'Pusat Pemulihan Dadah', untuk membantu mangsa-mangsa Alkoholik melepaskan tabiat buruk ini yang membawa pelbagai masalah sosial sekiranya tidak dibendung.

Soalan 6;

Minta Menteri Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air menyatakan bilakah cadangan untuk menyatukan bil pembentungan (IWK) dan bil air negeri-negeri akan dilaksanakan sebagai salah satu formula dilihat paling berkesan untuk mengatasi isu kutipan bil pembentungan yang selalu tertunggak.

Soalan 7;

Minta Menteri Kerja Raya menyatakan status permohonan menaiktaraf Jalan Sri Kledang di Hulu Bernam yang telah dipohon di dalam RMK10, bilakah projek itu akan dimulakan dan berapakah peruntukan yang telah diluluskan bagi projek menaiktaraf jalan tersebut.

Soalan 8;

Minta Perdana Menteri menyatakan sama ada kerajaan bercadang untuk menubuhkan satu Suruhanjaya untuk menyelami apakah punca-punca dan sebab-sebab kadar jenayah meningkat dikalangan remaja kaum India dan pada masa yang sama mencari cara-cara mengatasi masalah ini.

Soalan 9;

Minta Perdana Menteri menyatakan tindakan yang akan di ambil oleh JPA untuk membantu pelajar-pelajar (bukan bumiputera) yang mempunyai keputusan cemerlang dalam peperiksaan SPM/STPM dan memenuhi semua syarat kelayakan, dan ramai daripada mereka daripada keluarga yang miskin, tetapi tidak layak menerima biasiswa atau bantuan melanjutkan pelajaran.

Soalan 10;

Minta Menteri Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan menyatakan apakah tindakan yang diambil terhadap pemaju-pemaju rumah yang tidak menyiapkan projek-projek perumahan mereka seperti yang dijanjikan oleh mereka; bagaimana Kementerian dapat membantu pembeli-pembeli yang harus membayar pinjaman bank, walaupun rumah yang dibeli belum boleh diduduki.


Soalan 1;

Minta Menteri Kerja Raya menyatakan jumlah perbelanjaan yang telah dibuat dan akan dibuat (perancangan) oleh Kerajaan Persekutuan dalam projek membina, memperelok dan juga menaik taraf Jalan Persekutuan 1 (FT 001) di sepanjang Daerah Hulu Selangor dari tahun 2008 sehingga tahun 2015.

Soalan 2;

Minta Perdana Menteri menyatakan jumlah kakitangan (Penjawat Awam dan Agensi Kerajaan) yang bukan bumiputera (berdasarkan kaum) yang telah di lantik sejak 2008 sehingga kini dan apakah langkah-langkah yang diambil oleh kerajaan untuk memastikan lebih ramai Penjawat Awam bukan bumiputera berkhidmat bersama kerajaan.

Soalan 3;

Minta Menteri Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar menyatakan berapa banyak tanah berstatus tanah kerajaan yang masih tidak dicereboh dan berapakah tanah hutan simpanan yang dicereboh mengikut negeri di Malaysia; apakah kaedah penyelesaian diamalkan dalam akta 313.

Soalan 4;

Minta Menteri Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan Masyarakat menyatakan sama ada pemegang taraf penduduk tetap yang lahir sebelum Merdeka diberi bantuan kebajikan; sekiranya ada, berapa ramai yang menerima (berdasarkan pecahan kaum); dan sekiranya tidak, adakah Kementerian bercadang untuk memberi bantuan kepada mereka yang akan menjadi warga emas.

Soalan 5;

Minta Menteri Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan menyatakan jumlah tapak perkuburan yang telah direzabkan (Islam & bukan Islam) yang terdapat di Malaysia; dan adakah bantuan diberi kepada tanah-tanah perkuburan tersebut; sekiranya ya, apakah jenis bantuan diberi; dan sekiranya tidak, adakah perancangan untuk membantu kos senggeraan tapak perkuburan.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011


Pas kesal keputusan MB

BUKIT TARIK - Ketika Kerajaan Negeri kekal dengan keputusannya untuk meneruskan operasi memusnahkan penempatan dan tanaman penduduk di Kampung Sungai Kerandang di sini, mantan Yang Dipertua Pas Hulu Selangor pula bangkit menyuarakan kekesalannya sekiranya operasi diteruskan.

Abdul Wahid Basri yang kini memegang Ahli Jawatankuasa Pas Hulu Selangor berkata, keputusan itu berbeza daripada hasrat asal kerajaan Pakatan Rakyat (PR) yang mahu membela nasib Melayu khususnya melibatkan pemilikan tanah.

“Menurut makluman Menteri Besar sebelum ini dan di mana-mana kempen pilihan raya, beliau akan membela nasib semua kaum khususnya melibatkan pemilikan tanah di negeri ini.

“Tapi kalau (operasi ini) diteruskan juga, amat malang bagi penduduk dan ia akan memberi kesan buruk terhadap pentadbiran Kerajaan Negeri seperti mana yang pernah berlaku kepada kerajaan terdahulu,” katanya.

Bagaimanapun katanya, hasil perbincangan bersama wakil penduduk dan pihak berkuasa termasuk Penolong Pengarah Penguatkuasa Hutan, Mohd Yussainy Mohd Yusop, hanya membenarkan Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Selangor (JPNS) membaik pulih 4.4 hektar tanah yang belum produktif daripada 354 hektar keluasan asal operasi berkenaan.

Sementara itu, selebihnya termasuk penempatan penduduk dan tanaman ditangguh seketika dan rayuan kepada Menteri Besar masih boleh diusahakan.

Dalam pada itu, Ketua Kampung berkenaan, Kasani Kameran, 76, berkata, kuasa mengesahkan dan membatalkan operasi itu terletak pada JPNS.

Saturday, May 7, 2011


Brief Information about Encik Hanif Zulkifli;

Encik Hanif Zolkefle is a 13 year old boy and he has been diagnosed with Osteosarcoma, for your information, Osteosarcoma is an aggressive cancerous neoplasm arising from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin that exhibit osteoblastic differentiation and produce malignant osteoid. It is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer.

He was recently admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre and underwent operation wide resection of left femur endoprosthesis insertion. He has completed 2 cycles of chemotherapy and is due to start his 3rd cycle chemotherapy this month. The Doctors have also suggested that he defer 1 year of study to help them in treating him better and to fully optimize his condition.

Hanif's mother Puan Salisa, recently met me and requested my assistance to buy her son a Lap-Top as he wanted to have one and the family cannot afford to buy him one. Hanif's wish to have a Lap-Top was granted. While handing over the Lap-Top to Hanif, Hanif informed me that he would love to chat with YAB Prime Minister using his new Lap-Top and he said he was amazed and so proud to have a Prime Minister who is not only humble but is so New-Media savvy.

The Prime Minister has graciously granted the wish of this boy and will be speaking to him.

You want to know how?

Follow me via my Twitter @PKamalanathan or Hanif's Twitter @Hanif1Malaysia